In order to detect atmospheric drought and in consequence soil drought air temperature and rainfall measurements are analyzed. Due to complexity of reasons and effects of droughts related to plant production various drought criteria are given in literature, depending on atmospheric factors. It cannot be explicitly determined, how many non-rainy days implies drought phenomenon. In order to quantify atmospheric drought influencing plant production dryness coefficient, which takes into account rainfall and evapotranspiration, is applied. The crucial point in this method lies in obtaining evapotranspiration values. Remote sensing methods can deliver information, which enable to determine unfavorable crop growth conditions, caused by drought through spatial demonstration of evapotranspiration values computed as a function of radiation temperature recorded by NOAA satellite.
In the drought detection system remote sensing data, supported with meteorological observations, are the main source of information. Analysis of crop growth conditions is done through the whole vegetation period and situation is compared with normal or previous year.
The processed information for Poland is derived from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images, collected at the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, as well as from NOAA/NESDIS data, comprising TCI and VCI coefficients. This information is also compared with data received from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management and from the Head Statistical Office.
Research project concerning with this subject are: